TEACHING READING BY USING PQ4R STRATEGY
The PQ4R is a system that provides a series of steps aimed at helping the reader understand and remember what he or she has read.
PQ4R is an acronym for Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review. It involves the reader applying the following steps when reading:
Look over the material before you start to read it: Check the title and headings; note how long it is; check for cues and clues; read introductory paragraphs and summary sections.
Generate questions related to the purpose for your reading. Try turning chapter or section headings into questions. Ask What? How? Why? Write down questions before you begin reading. As you read, you can add to your list.
Try to answer the questions you have formulated through reading. Pay attention to main points and evidence being presented as they relate to the purpose of your reading. Adjust your reading speed according to the difficulty of the text – read at a speed that assists your understanding of what you are reading.
Be active as you read. Try to think of examples or create images of the material. Add meaning to what you are reading by relating it to your own experiences and what you already know about the topic.
After reading each section, pause and consider whether you have answered your questions. You may need to do this more often if the material you are reading is particularly difficult. Try to answer your questions without looking at the text and use your own words wherever possible. Say the answers out loud as this as this help to consolidate what you have learned.
Incorporate the new material into your memory by regularly going back to previous sections and checking that you have understood and remembered what you have read so far. Reviewing requires regular rereading, especially of the sections where you have difficulty in answering your questions. PQ4R strategy is one of the effective ways to help the students in reading comprehension. This strategy is modified into the students’ discussion in order to attain the students’ interaction. (Fox, r., Radloff, A. and Herrmann, A. 1994).
The reading tests were tests that were designed in order to measure the students’ reading comprehension. It consisted of several paragraphs on various topics and were followed by several questions in the form of multiple choice. Furthermore, the tests consisted of pre-test and post test.
a. The pre-test was used to examine the students’ ability in reading comprehension before the treatment was given. The result of pre-test was used as reference for conducting the research.
b. Post-test were used to examine the effectiveness or the result of the action.
The teacher’s scenario was prepared in order to have a clear description of what to be done in the classroom. It was a guideline for the teacher in conducting every step of the teaching plan. The scenario involved the activities that would be conducted, the time allotment, the teacher’s approach, and the material used in teaching learning process.
The Application of Teaching Reading by Using PQ4R Strategy.
Topic : Reading Text
Sub topic : Narrative Text
Time allocation : 120 minutes
Level : Third grade of Senior High School
a. Introducing the narrative text
b. Telling the students about the topic of narrative text that is going to be taught
c. Asking some general information related to the topic
2. Whilst Activities
Teacher distributed the text
Asking the students to skim it
Asking the students to make up questions to what they found in skimming reading
Asking the students to read the text carefully
Asking the students to take notes
Asking the students to think the information that they like found in the text (discussing in pairs)
Grouping the class
Asking the students to discuss the information that they found in the text in their own group
Asking the students to summarize their group discussion and answering the question that they made before
a. Giving chance to the students to ask questions about the text that they do not understand
b. Concluding the lesson
c. Asking the students to read more at home
1. Read the text carefully.
2. Answer the questions/exercise after reading the text
HISTORY OF FOOTBALL
No one really knows when the game of football began. Some sort of recreation involving kicking and chasing a round object seems to have existed as long as human history. Recorded history traces football’s origins to ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, and China.
Football is also called soccer. Modern soccer began in England, where the first set of rules was published in 1863 by London Football Association. All major innovation in the sport, such as international matches (between England and Scotland in 1872), the introduction of professionalism (1885) and the first full time league (1888), all took place in England. That gave the sport a clearly defined set of standards and a name: Football Association (FA). Somehow, the word “soccer” was derived from “assoc”, the shortened form of association.
Football or soccer developed very quickly in England, and by 1888 and first professional league had been created. English travelers and settlers spread the game throughout the world. The English spread soccer worldwide to continental Europe, South America and India. The sport seemed to gain instant appeal wherever it was demonstrated. In 1908, the sport was made a regular Olympic Games event. Soccer’s international governing body, the FIFA, was formed in 1904. Its main objective was to organize championship matches between professional teams of different nations.
People in different countries adapted new and different ways to play the game. Today, there are various styles of play depending upon the nation or culture in which the game is played. There is the Italian style, Brazilian style, the Turkish style and many more.
There are also different names for soccer in other languages. Futbol in Spanish, calcio in Italian, fussball in German, and so on. There are many names for soccer, but it is played with the same rules around the world, often before huge crowds. In London, 90,000 people frequently watch soccer games at Wembley Stadium. In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 200,000 people jam Maracana Stadium for soccer games.
Soccer is both recreational and competitive sports. In term of competition, soccer is played on every level-from a junior team of 6-year-old through high school and college and up to club, professional and national teams.
Football must be played by two teams of 11 players attempting to kick an inflated ball into goal cages at opposite ends of a grass playing field. Soccer is unique because of its total restriction on the use of the hands; only the goal keeper may use his hands, and then only within a limited area. The other ten players must advance the ball using primarily their feet, although a proficient soccer player can use almost every part of the body to control and guide the ball, including the head.
The Macmillan Family Encyclopedia, 1980
Give “T” for true statements and “F” for wrong statements. Support your choice with the statements from the text.
1. (…) We all know when football began.
2. (…) The first set of rules was published by the English Football Association.
3. (…) The rules of football are different. They depend on the nation and culture.
4. (…) The number of spectators in Brazil is much more than that in England.
5. (…) Football was brought outside England by the British army.
Answer the questions below.
1. Where is the history of football’s origins to ancient?
2. What team did match which considered as the international matches of football in the world?
3. What is the reason to name “soccer” for football?
4. How was the football spread throughout the world?
5. What did occur in 1908?
6. What was the objective of forming the FIFA?
7. Is calico the same as football? Why or why not?
8. What is the target in playing football?
9. Can goal keeper use the hands freely?
10. What is unique of football?
In which paragraph the ideas in the left column can be found? Put the paragraph number in the right column.
THE MAIN IDEA PARAGRAPH NUMBER
1. The ways of playing football
2. The beginning of modern football
3. The development of football in England
4. The history of football
5. The purpose of football
Find the words in the text which have the closest meaning to these explanations.
1. Look for the place of origin (paragraph 1)
2. Happened (paragraph 2)
3. Abbreviation (paragraph 2)
4. Very big in number (paragraph 5)
5. Move forward (paragraph 7).
Reread the text and do these practices.
VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT:
The following sentences contain vocabulary from the text “History of Football”. Read each sentence and circle the best definition for the highlighted word.
1. Some sort of recreation involving kicking and chasing a round object seems to have existed as long as human history.
2. Recorded history traces football’s origins to ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, and China.
3. Modern soccer began in England, where the first set of rules was published in 1863 by London Football Association.
4. The English spread soccer worldwide to continental Europe, South America and India.
5. Today, there are various styles of play depending upon the nation or culture in which the game is played.
GRAMMAR IN USE:
The passive of an active tense which formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the active verb and adding the third form of the active verb. The subject of active voice becomes an object and otherwise the object becomes the subject.
The rule of passive voice is: S + to be + third form of verb
Example: The dog kills the lizard. (active)
The lizard is killed by the dog. (passive).
1. Find the least three sentences using passive voice.
2. Change the sentences found into active voice.
3. Write five sentences using passive voice based on your own words.